Tracer

The module ibex_tracer can be used to create a log of the executed instructions. It is used by ibex_core_tracing which forwards the RVFI signals to the tracer (see also RISC-V Formal Interface).

Output file

All traced instructions are written to a log file. By default, the log file is named trace_core_<HARTID>.log, with <HARTID> being the 8 digit hart ID of the core being traced.

The file name base, defaulting to trace_core can be set using the ibex_tracer_file_base plusarg passed to the simulation. For example, +ibex_tracer_file_base=ibex_my_trace will produce log files named ibex_my_trace_<HARTID>.log. The exact syntax of passing plusargs to a simulation depends on the simulator.

Trace output format

The trace output is in tab-separated columns.

  1. Time: The current simulation time.

  2. Cycle: The number of cycles since the last reset.

  3. PC: The program counter

  4. Instr: The executed instruction (base 16). 32 bit wide instructions (8 hex digits) are uncompressed instructions, 16 bit wide instructions (4 hex digits) are compressed instructions.

  5. Decoded instruction: The decoded (disassembled) instruction in a format equal to what objdump produces when calling it like objdump -Mnumeric -Mno-aliases -D.

    • Unsigned numbers are given in hex (prefixed with 0x), signed numbers are given as decimal numbers.

    • Numeric register names are used (e.g. x1).

    • Symbolic CSR names are used.

    • Jump/branch targets are given as absolute address if possible (PC + immediate).

  6. Register and memory contents: For all accessed registers, the value before and after the instruction execution is given. Writes to registers are indicated as registername=value, reads as registername:value. For memory accesses, the address and the loaded and stored data are given.

Time          Cycle      PC       Instr    Decoded instruction Register and memory contents
          130         61 00000150 4481     c.li    x9,0        x9=0x00000000
          132         62 00000152 00008437 lui     x8,0x8      x8=0x00008000
          134         63 00000156 fff40413 addi    x8,x8,-1    x8:0x00008000  x8=0x00007fff
          136         64 0000015a 8c65     c.and   x8,x9       x8:0x00007fff  x9:0x00000000  x8=0x00000000
          142         67 0000015c c622     c.swsp  x8,12(x2)   x2:0x00002000  x8:0x00000000 PA:0x0000200c store:0x00000000  load:0xffffffff